The key to success in managing damage caused by wildlife is first and foremost to correctly identify the species doing the damage. Rabbits, for example, have strong front teeth which cause pruning like damage (a clean cut). Usually a sharp 45 degree angle that is at or below one foot off the ground are good indicators of rabbits. Deer, on the other hand, have poor front teeth and tend to grab and pull the vegetation causing scraping damage most often between one and five feet off the ground. Deer also leave scraping marks from rubbing which will also be higher on the trunk than most rabbits can reach. Both animals cause damage but the evidence clearly indicates the culprit which will determine the type of management approach to use. Putting up a 2’ fence to deter rabbits would not faze the deer and installing a 12’ fence is an expensive overkill to maintain the rabbits.
Whatever your approach it is important to be proactive and persistent. The use of a good wildlife guide can be beneficial in identifying species. Author Mark Elbroch has wonderful guides among which are: Mammal Tracks and Signs and Bird Tracks and Signs. These offer helpful information on a multitude of animals and should be a good source in narrowing down the kind of pest you are dealing with.
The first step in wildlife management should be cultural modification. Can you change the way you do things? For example, placing a bungee cord on trash cans may eliminate raccoons. Storing dog food (that may be in your garage) in sealed containers can deter mice and chipmunks. Eliminating hiding spots or areas where animals may burrow can keep populations down. Beyond that it is best to divide your yard into different zones based on the type of problem and the control strategies used. One zone may be for “non-lethal” methods such as chase, scare or deter. Another “lethal zone” will involve more drastic measures. Examples of each may include:
Noise/harassment – such as with a dog to chase wildlife away. Randomness is the key, if the harassment is always the same then wildlife can adapt.
Taste repellent – such as sprays applied to leaves. This works well on ornamentals.
Smell repellents – such as moth balls, Irish Spring soap or even Milorganite scattered around the area.
Capture and release – this has a relatively low success rate. Animals tend to return to the area or die in the new release location.
Poisons are typical and can be effective. However, it’s important to be mindful that poisons don’t discriminate. Any animal can ingest the poison and the bodies of the victims can hold the poison in their tissues. Thus, anything that eats the dead animal may also succumb to the poison. This includes neighborhood pets or more “desirable” wildlife visiting your yard. Poisons can be slow to act allowing the victim to retreat to an inaccessible area (such as den, tree or inside a wall) before they die. Decomposing carcasses are sure to attract even more pests. Traps to kill can also be effective but can be rather cruel depending on the method of trapping.
Wildlife, like weeds, are an ongoing issue for gardeners and homeowners. If you are having constant problems with wildlife in your yard do your research to learn about the problem and the offender. The more drastic the measure you need to take, the more important it is to be respectful of the attitudes and opinions of any neighbors. If you are using poisons you should be familiar with regulations and laws that govern the species you are targeting. It is also good to acquaint yourself with the agencies and services which might be valuable resources. There are many websites dealing with damage from wildlife, some specific to Wisconsin are listed below.
Wildlife Ecology & Damage Management wildlifedamage.uwex.edu
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources dnr.state.wi.us
Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management icwdm.org
Many people believe that four season interest means that they’re limited to evergreens but that’s not always the case! There are several plants that offer year round interest, especially in winter, through their unique bark and/or berries. Here are a few of our favorites.
- Seven-Son Flower (Heptacodium miconioides) is a unique, multi-stemmed specimen plant which can be grown as a small tree or large shrub. In spring, the glossy green leaves emerge and remain attractive throughout the season. The distinct (and fragrant!) creamy white flowers bloom late in the summer/early fall when few other woody ornamentals are blooming. The flowers have a jasmine-like scent which last several weeks and are a good late-season nectar source for butterflies. As if the flowers weren’t exceptional enough on their own, the most stunning trait of Heptacodium are the small, inconspicuous fruits that are surrounded by a persistent calyx. These turn a bright red/magenta color that result in another eye-catching display late in the season and last another 4 to 5 weeks into late fall. Even during our long winters, this plant looks great! It has an interesting branching form with light brown exfoliating bark. A true multi-seasonal plant that will have your neighbors talking!
- Vernal Witchhazel (Hamamelis vernalis) is a small horizontally spreading tree or large shrub (depending on who you ask)! The unusual features of the witch hazel family make them excellent choices for adventurous gardeners. Many people know of the Common Witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) and appreciate its late fall bloom and shade tolerance, but for an even more unique choice – go Vernal! It is one of the earliest shrubs to flower in spring, the flowers range from yellow to orangey-red in color with four strap-like petals that curl inward on chilly days. This is actually an adaptive mechanism to protect them from freezing. In fall, the attractive oval-shaped leaves turn a golden yellow/orange and the woody fruit capsules split in half to disperse the seeds. Another impressive spectacle, if you are lucky enough to witness it – the seeds are forced or shot-out of the seed pod to a distance of 30 feet! The seeds are happily eaten by turkeys and grouse.
- Black Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa ‘Autumn Magic’) this is one of my favorite underutilized shrubs! Dainty white flower clusters in spring and nice dark green leaves through summer. The common name is in reference to the tart (and very astringent) berries! The fruits contain about 3X MORE ANTIOXIDANTS than blueberries and can make tasty jams and jellies. Fall color is wonderful, ranging from bright orange to reddish-purple. The fruits form in clusters that cover the plant and persist into January, offering nice winter interest – they are some of the last fruits the birds will take! Aronia can withstand a wide range of soils, including wet soils making them a good choice for rain gardens as well.
“I drifted into a summer-nap under the hot shade of July, serenaded by a cicadae lullaby, to drowsy-warm dreams of distant thunder.” – Terri Guillemets
Come July you may be tempted by that hammock in the shade, swaying gently in the breeze… now is the time you can comfortably sit back for a moment and enjoy the fruits of your labor. But remember, there are still plenty of things to do in your garden – Don’t snooze for too long!
- Remember the Basics: If it ever stops raining, July brings with it some of the hottest days of summer so don’t forget to thoroughly water your container and vegetable gardens. If you have travel plans, ask a friend to water for you – the worst feeling is coming back from a great trip to find your beloved plants have all wilted due to neglect.
- Don’t Forget Deadheading: If you take some time to remove and prune off spent blooms, the plant can use that energy for more flower production versus seed. Deadheading encourages your perennials to rebloom, extending their bloom time and providing a more attractive display overall.
- Take Garden Walks: We are so lucky in Madison and Dane County to have gorgeous gardens overflowing with inspiration at our fingertips! Bring your sketchbook or camera along and document plant combinations that work, interesting cultivars that you may find, cool wildlife sightings, etc. The UW Arboretum, Allen Centennial Gardens and Olbrich Botanical Gardens are all great places to find a huge variety of unique gardens that could apply to your home landscape.
- Speaking of Garden Walks: This weekend is Olbrich’s Home & Garden Tour! It is a great opportunity to get into exceptional gardens that normally wouldn’t be open to the public. Avant Gardening is proud to be a sponsor of this fun event. For more information, visit: olbrich.org/events/homegardentour.cfm
- Harvest Your Garden Bounty: Many fruits and vegetables ripen up this month! Be sure to get in your garden to start picking and preserving your harvest – try making some jams, salsa or pasta sauce to use up multiple different kinds of veggies. You can also plant a second round of vegetables to harvest in fall, consider: arugula, broccoli, chard, kale, lettuce, spinach, radish, carrots or green beans.
“A perfect summer day is when the sun is shining, the breeze is blowing, the birds are singing, and the lawn mower is broken.” – James Dent
What better time than spring to talk about the tulip bulb? However, let’s look less at its beauty and more at its influence as an economic influence. The tulip may be one of the world’s most recognizable flowers but it is also at the center of one of the world’s most notorious financial crashes – The Tulip Crash of 1637.
The tulip bulb originated in Turkey. In 1593, Dutch traders imported the first bulbs to Holland. They were unique, beautiful, exotic and therefore, expensive. The growing conditions in Holland caused the bulbs to be susceptible to a mosaic virus that caused color striations in the petals known as ‘flames’. These flames created attractive markings that actually added to the tulip’s mystique and value. They became highly prized and thus even more expensive.
The flowers mysterious beauty, coupled with limited supplies lead to a tulip buying frenzy. And, of course, as with all financial frenzies people looked for more and more ways to profit. This led to speculation in tulip markets where buyers could invest in future contracts for the delivery of the bulbs. Not unlike the stock markets of today, bulbs were traded at market exchanges and as the frenzy increased buyers started trading on margins or future profits. This practice was especially risky and an overconfident atmosphere prevailed. Traders believed there would always be a market for tulips, especially to foreigners. Seeing no end to their wealth potential, traders cashed in all sorts of assets including their homes, cattle, and savings to invest in tulip bulbs. This period is seen by some as the beginning of the futures and commodities trading practices of today.
As demand grew tulip growers worked to increase their supply. Prices soared to more than 20 times the cost of bulbs and some individual bulbs could sell for as much as 10 times the yearly income of a skilled craftsperson. As prices skyrocketed investors began to cash in their wealth. This slowed down the soaring prices and eventually fear started to enter the market as more and more traders cashed in their investments. The crash ushered in one of the world’s most devastating recessions that lasted for many years. The Dutch government decided to bail out investors by paying them 10% of their investment. The bail out added to the loss of confidence and contributed to a deeper plunge in the market. Does any of this sound familiar?
To be clear, there is limited economic data from the 1630s and some researchers are skeptical of the actually scope of the bubble. Nevertheless, the effects of this over inflated little bulb understandably left the Dutch very cautious of speculation for many years.
If you have a bad case of spring fever and really want to stretch every last penny this month… a visit to the WPT Garden Expo may be the cure!
Make plans to join Avant Gardening and Landscaping at the 2016 Wisconsin Public Television Garden Expo February 10th-12th at the Alliant Energy Center in Madison. This event is sure to get you ready for all your spring gardening and landscaping adventures and with so many offerings it’s sure to please everyone in the family.
For more information and to pre-purchase tickets visit: www.wigardenexpo.com
A day at the Garden Expo costs $8 (in advance) and the list of fun things to do throughout the weekend is endless. Here’s a quick look at our team’s top 5 reasons to visit:
1. 150+ FREE EDUCATIONAL SEMINARS & DEMONSTRATIONS
If that’s not enough to get your gardening soul excited, we don’t know what will! There’s a huge variety of topics from beekeeping to landscape design. Becky Kielstrup, Avant Gardening’s General Manager/Horticulturalist, will also be presenting! Be sure to check out her seminar, especially if you are interested in reducing or eliminating pesticides and inorganic fertilizers in the landscape. She will discuss organic lawn care, sustainable planting bed methods, native plants, integrated pest management and simple tips on how to begin!
Organic Landscape Maintenance Practices
When: Saturday 11:45am – 12:30pm Location: Waubesa/Kegonsa OR Sunday 12:45pm – 1:30pm
2. EXCITING RAFFLE PRIZES
Need a new outdoor grill, gardening tools or maybe a whole new garden? Try your luck in the Garden Expo Raffle. This year, Avant Gardening & Landscaping has donated a gift certificate towards a Perennial Collection, a great prize whether you’re an established gardener or just starting out.
3. INDOOR FARMER’S MARKET
Back by popular demand, the second annual Farmers’ Market! It will feature farmers, food artisans and local food retailers. Products available include pickles and preserves, artisan cheeses, honey, olive oil, tea, chocolate, greens, coffee, and hand-crafted salami and cured meats. Stop by the expo on Sunday, February 12 from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. and visit the Atrium of the Exhibition Hall to do some shopping!
4. BOTANICAL THEMED CRAFT COCKTAILS
New this year – on Friday from 5-8 p.m. in the central garden there will be botanical-themed craft cocktails offered, developed by mixologists from Graze. A little cost but hey, when in Rome… View the cocktail menu here.Take some time to enjoy the beautiful plant and flower display put together by members of the Wisconsin Nursery and Landscaping Association (WNLA) and enjoy music from jazz pianist Dave Stoler, a featured member of the Tony Castaneda Latin Jazz Sextet.
5. SHARE IDEAS & GET INSPIRATION
Avant Gardening and Landscaping will be one of the hundreds of businesses, contractors, nonprofits, and artists on hand, ready to answer any of your questions throughout the weekend. Get new ideas about gardening, landscaping and local food production. You can even talk directly with experts from UW-Extension Horticulture and many local Botanical Gardens.
If money is really that tight – you can always get in free (and even FREE parking). For Garden Expo volunteer opportunities, visit Wisconsin Public Television’s Volunteer website to browse available positions and shifts. As a thank you for your help, they provide you with a free parking pass and admission to Garden Expo on the day of your volunteer shift.
We hope you venture out for this mid-winter oasis – Spring will be here before we know it!
The first snow of the year can be a thing of beauty. By the 15th snowfall however, we start to get real sick of white everywhere. Enter the Redtwig Dogwood! As the name implies this shrub boasts some very colorful stems that look great against the snow and add a pop of color to an otherwise stark winter landscape.
Arctic Sun™ dogwood is a dwarf suckering shrub, a compact version of the popular ‘Winter Flame’ redtwig dogwood. The Dutch plant breeder of ‘Winter Flame’, Andre van Nijnatten, introduced this fantastic dogwood with smaller-stature that is perfect for small space gardening and residential landscapes. The beautiful stems are yellow with red tips that appear as a coral shade when massed together and best stem color occurs on new, youngest twigs. Bring some of the outdoors in this over the winter season by using these uniquely colored stems as cut accents in holiday arrangements!
Dogwoods are wonderful native, deer resistant, multi-seasonal shrubs with creamy white flat-topped flower clusters in late spring, that give way to whitish/blue drupes in late summer and golden yellow to peachy orange fall color. The flowers umbel shape offers an excellent landing pad for many butterflies, while the fruits are quite attractive to a wide variety of birds. In fact, American Robin, Cedar Waxwings, Purple Finch, Red-Eyed Vireo, Scarlet Tanager and Wood Thrush all use dogwoods as a source of food, cover and nesting.
Soap! Dye! Baskets! – Oh my! Did you know that dogwood seed contains 45% of a non-drying oil that is used in soap making? A blue-green dye can also be obtained from the fruit, and the flexible young stems can be used in basketry.
Common Name: Arctic Sun™ Bloodtwig Dogwood
Scientific Name: Cornus sanquinea ‘Cato’ P.P. #19,892
Height: 3-4’ Spread: 3-4’
Bloom Time: May to June
Sun Requirements: Full Sun to Part Shade
Sick of Wisconsin Winters yet? We decided that this week we are feeling the need to dream of summer.
Just pretend it’s a beautiful, warm July day… you’re out on your patio, sipping some lemonade, birds are chirping, flowers are nodding in the warm breeze…. How about we take you back to the 2015 Olbrich Botanical Garden’s Home Garden Tour?
For a little while, let’s forget about the cold and the snow… Let’s enjoy some lovely summer weather and look at a gorgeous garden.
Blazing Star (Liatris spicata) and Purple Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) are both examples of native plant species in this bird & butterfly friendly landscape.
Meandering natural flagstone stepper pathway entices visitors throughout the garden. A small rain garden with native plantings, catches grey-water from the roof and slowly infiltrates it back into the aquifer.
This lovely arbor invites visitors to wander throughout the garden. A natural Chilton flagstone pathway provides an informal way to access the perennial garden beds and various intimate garden spaces.
To see more images of this garden, check out our Houzz Project Profile: Craftsman Small-Space Gardening
Our climate can be crazy! From freezing rain to temperatures in the 40’s in January… it’s difficult to predict what it’s going to do next! With the recent freezing rain and the need to spread sand (and salt in most cases) we thought we’d share a list of plants that are salt tolerant.
Excess salt in the soil upsets a plant’s ability to move water and results in desiccation and, for some plants, eventually death. Aerial salt spray leaves particles on the leaves, stems, and buds and when the water evaporates causes plant disfigurement and/or death.
Although no salt is good – these plants are usually tough enough to withstand it. Plants that evolved in the presence of high saline environments (think seaside) have tolerance to these environments. When planning for areas with potential of high salt damage (near roads, driveways, and sidewalks) consider using some of the plants listed below that demonstrate these tolerances.
Salt Tolerant Plants
- Aesculus hippocastanum (Horsechestnut)
- Amelanchier spp. (Serviceberry)
- Aronia melanocarpa (Black Chokeberry)
- Celtis occidentalis (Hackberry)
- Chioanthus virginicus (White Fringetree)
- Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo)
- Gleditsia triacanthos (Honeylocust)
- Gymnocladus dioicus (Kentucky Coffeetree)
- Ilex glabra (Inkberry)
- Ilex verticillata (Winterberry)
- Juniperus chinensis (Chinese Juniper)
- Juniperus communis (Common Juniper)
- Juniperus horizontalis (Creeping Juniper)
- Juniperus virginiana (Eastern Red Cedar)
- Larix decidua (Common Larch)
- Picea pungens (Colorado Spruce)
- Prunus serotina (Black Cherry)
- Quercus alba (White Oak)
- Quercus bicolor (Swamp White Oak)
- Quercus macrocarpa (Bur Oak)
- Rhus typhina (Staghorn Sumac)
- Sambucus canadensis (Elderberry)
- Symphoricarpos albus (Snowberry)
- Syringa reticulata (Japanese Tree Lilac)
- Syringa vulgaris (Common Lilac)
- Taxodium distichum (Baldcypress)
- Ulmus americana ‘Valley Forge’ (American Elm)
- Viburnum dentatum (Arrowwood Viburnum)
- Viburnum prunifolium (Blackhaw Viburnum)
- Yucca filamentosa (Adam’s Needle)
- Yucca glauca (Soapweed)
Local trade shows and expos can be awkward and intimidating! Do you get anxious wandering through a huge exposition hall lined with booth after booth of unfamiliar companies… New expo visitors can be hesitant for numerous reasons. Do any of the following situations below apply to you?
- Just bought a new house and have no idea where to start…
- Feel like if you stop and talk you will be pressured into a hard sale…
- Just not sure what/how to ask questions to get valuable information…
With the Madison Home Show fresh in our memory and the NARI Remodeling Expo coming up this weekend, we decided to create a list of intelligent and important questions for you to ask your local landscaper before you hire them to work at your property.
These questions are not only important to make sure you will be working with a qualified, reputable landscaping company – but will also get the conversation going about your potential project and help you determine if they are the right company for you!
Here are 5 Questions we’d recommend asking – with answers from Tim Stenzel, one of our Landscape Architects at Avant Gardening & Landscaping.
1. What is your background in the field?
I have a Bachelor’s degree in Conservation Biology from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and a Master’s degree in Landscape Architecture from SUNY-ESF in Syracuse, NY. After graduate school, I spent several years working in and around Chicago and the North Shore communities.
2. How long has your company been in business?
We are proud to be celebrating our 32nd Year in Business! As our name implies, Avant Gardening and Landscaping has been at the forefront of the gardening and landscaping industry in Madison and Dane County since 1985. We couldn’t do it without our loyal clients and dedicated team.
3. Do you hire Registered Landscape Architects?
Yes! Having a registered landscape architect on staff is very important for the health, safety and welfare of our clients. We have 3 Licensed Landscape Architects, which is quite a few for our small office! Liza Lightfoot, Dan Schmitt & Tim Stenzel are all very talented and have experience working on complicated projects. Read more about them on our staff page.
4. Where does the bulk of your work come from?
Most of our work comes from Loyal Existing Clients coming back to complete another phase of their project or continuing to work with our maintenance team in their gardens. A large majority of brand new clients come from Existing Client Referrals. We also receive quite a few referrals from local businesses and public gardens (such as Allen Centennial Garden and Olbrich Botanical Gardens), our website & Google, and the Wisconsin Public Television Garden Expo.
If the company answers with Yellow Pages, or doesn’t know where their work comes from, this is a red flag… It tells you that the contractor is either new, inexperienced, a low-baller in the industry or simply doesn’t get many referrals…
5. What are the most unique services your company provides?
- Avant offers a very successful organic lawn care program using compost topdressing, compost teas, and lawn aerating.
- We use a lot of natural stone in our patio, wall and walkway installations. This is becoming less common in our industry. We use eco-sensitive practices whenever possible and believe in sourcing local raw materials, such as natural stone, which means there is less processing of materials which ultimately creates more waste water.
- We make our own soil blends! We recycle whenever possible and take all of the plant debris from jobsites and turn it continually throughout the year, once it breaks down into fine organic matter we mix it into our planting bed mix – the outcome is a very fertile soil mix that is periodically tested by UW Soils lab to ensure high quality.
6. What is your company’s philosophy?
Our philosophy has always been to see ourselves as stewards of the environment. We believe in living by example, Avant’s office grounds are landscaped in a naturalistic style that attracts a diversity of birds, pollinators and butterflies. We’ve recently become an official Monarch Waystation! We also have a small pond that we keep open and functioning through the long winter months because it is an important water source for wildlife.
We hope this blog posts helps you prepare for the next home show or expo you visit! Speaking of… don’t forget to visit us this weekend! Stop by Avant Gardening & Landscaping’s booth #409 at the NARI Madison Remodeling Expo Jan. 20-22. For more information check out http://www.nariexpo.com/
Many Wisconsin gardeners believe four-season interest means they’re limited to evergreens, but there are many other options! The three plants listed below are top favorites because they have either unique berries, bark or other interesting element in the winter – and they’re not evergreens!
1. Seven-Son Flower (Heptacodium miconioides) has glossy leaves that emerge and remain attractive all season. Fragrant flowers bloom late in the season, followed by small fruits surrounded by a bright red/magenta calyx produces a late fall display. Light brown exfoliating bark adds winter interest.
Zone: 5 to 9 Height: 15-20 feet Spread: 8-10 feet Attracts: Hummingbirds
2. Vernal Witchhazel (Hamamelis vernalis) is an early-flowering shrub. The orange-red flowers have strap-like petals that curl inward on chilly days (an adaptive mechanism to protect from freezing). The oval-shaped leaves turn a golden yellow/orange in fall and often hang on through winter.
Zone: 4 to 8 Height: 6-10 feet Spread: 8-15 feet Tolerate: Deer, Erosion, Clay Soil
3. Black Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa ‘Autumn Magic’) exhibits white flower clusters in spring and dark green leaves through summer. The astringent berries contain about 3X MORE ANTIOXIDANTS than blueberries! Excellent fall color ranges from bright orange to reddish-purple. Fruit clusters persist into January.
Zone: 3 to 8 Height: 3-6 feet Spread: 4-7 feet Suggested Use: Natural, Rain Garden